To find the earliest examples of rings associated with romance, it is necessary to go back thousands of years to the Ancient Greek civilisation. Whilst there is no direct evidence that the Ancient Greeks wore rings specifically related to a betrothal or marriage ceremony, there do exist however a number of rings which symbolise the matters of the heart such as the Hercules Knot which may have been worn as a talisman or lucky charm, reminding the owner of the giver’s affection for them.
Have you ever wondered why it is traditional to wear your betrothal ring on the fourth finger of your left hand? This gesture actually has its origins in the Ancient Egyptian world where it was believed that the 'Vena Amoris' or 'vein of love' ran from the third finger of the left hand directly to the heart, making it the perfect finger for such a ring.
The Ancient Romans are credited with the invention of the engagement ring. As far back as the 1st century AD onwards it was typical to hold a betrothal ceremony called a sponsalia during which the groom presented his future bride with a ring known as 'annulus pronubus', made from iron to signify strength and permanence. As time went by these rings began to be crafted in gold with engravings and decoration, such as clasped hands- the original form of the fede ring-, portraits of the couple and intaglios depicting Cupid.
In the year 860, Pope Nicolas I decreed that a ring was a 'requirement' to signify engagement and he stipulated that it must be gold to show the formal financial intention behind the union. So before the end of the first millennium, the gold engagement ring was synonymous with our Western wedding tradition.