Scottish jewellery was in large part popularized by Queen Victoria, who purchased the Balmoral estate, located in the Scottish highlands, as a royal retreat in 1848. The Queen as well as Prince Albert are both known to have owned pieces of Scottish jewellery. It was often designed in the Celtic manner, sometimes directly inspired by ancient examples. The thistle, the national emblem of Scotland, was also a common motif in Scottish jewellery. Furthermore, examples are typically set with stones mined in Scotland, particularly quartzes of the smoky, brown variety, then known as 'cairngorns', named after the mountian from which many were mined, as well as agates, and granite.